The Nomad agent supports encrypting all of its network traffic. There are two separate encryption systems, one for gossip traffic, and one for HTTP and RPC.
Enabling gossip encryption only requires that you set an encryption key when
starting the Nomad server. The key can be set via the
encrypt parameter: the value
of this setting is a server configuration file containing the encryption key.
The same encryption key should be used on every server in a region.
The key must be 16 bytes, base64 encoded. As a convenience, Nomad provides the
nomad operator keygen command to
generate a cryptographically suitable key:
nomad operator keygen cg8StVXbQJ0gPvMd9o7yrg==
With that key, you can enable gossip encryption on the agent.
HTTP, RPC, and Raft Encryption with TLS
Nomad supports using TLS to verify the authenticity of servers and clients. To enable this, Nomad requires that all clients and servers have key pairs that are generated and signed by a private Certificate Authority (CA).
TLS can be used to verify the authenticity of the servers and clients. The
verify_server_hostname causes Nomad to verify that
a certificate is provided that is signed by the Certificate Authority from the
ca_file for TLS connections.
verify_server_hostname is set, then outgoing connections perform
hostname verification. Unlike traditional HTTPS browser validation, all servers
must have a certificate valid for
server.<region>.nomad or the client will
reject the handshake. It is also recommended for the certificate to sign
localhost such that the CLI can validate the server name.
TLS is used to secure the RPC calls between agents, but gossip between nodes is done over UDP and is secured using a symmetric key. See above for enabling gossip encryption.
Configuring the command line tool
If you have HTTPS enabled for your Nomad agent, you must export environment variables for the command line tool to also use HTTPS:
# NOMAD_ADDR defaults to http://, so set it to https # Alternatively you can use the -address flag export NOMAD_ADDR=https://127.0.0.1:4646 # Set the location of your CA certificate # Alternatively you can use the -ca-cert flag export NOMAD_CACERT=/path/to/ca.pem
Run any command except
-h to see all environment variables and
flags. For example:
nomad status -h
By default HTTPS does not validate client certificates, so you do not need to give the command line tool access to any private keys.
Network Isolation with TLS
If you want to isolate Nomad agents on a network with TLS you need to enable
will cause agents to require client certificates for all incoming HTTPS
connections as well as verify proper names on all other certificates.
Consul will not attempt to health check agents with
as it is unable to use client certificates.
Configuring Nomad with TLS
Read the Securing Nomad with TLS Guide for details on how to configure encryption for Nomad.